Improving Phonics Lessons with Structured Word Inquiry

Story Hour Academy provides free phonics lessons to kids via a self-paced video curriculum that’s divided into 9 sections. The curriculum has some flaws, which I’ve outlined here. However, these lessons are better than no instruction at all. If you use Story Hour Academy, I recommend that you also learn and use something called Structured Word Inquiry (SWI) to interrogate the content of each lesson.

The following is a guide to getting the most out of Story Hour Academy. It lists the name of each lesson, the literature that can be read after each lesson, and some related topics to investigate with SWI. If you are new to SWI, consider taking one of these courses at your earliest convenience:

Please note that SWI can be used with any scope and sequence for early literacy instruction. The scope and sequence used here by Story Hour Academy is just one way of introducing students to the content knowledge necessary for reading, writing, and spelling. Also, if any of the topics listed below are too difficult, simply skip them and circle back later.

Here are some supplemental resources to consider purchasing before you get started:

If you find this information helpful, please let me know via an email to sally at storyhouracademy dot com.

#1 – Intro to Section 1

Lesson Single-Sound Consonants
Recommended Reading The Farm Yard Alphabet, Any Alphabet Book
Topics to Investigate Learn the names of the alphabet letters and the fact that letters can be graphemes.

Use SWI to study the word <grapheme>. Ask what does it mean? How is it built? What are its relatives? How is the pronunciation represented? Use the word sums and word matrix for the base <graph> to help answer the second and third questions.

Learn the term digraph and the fact that digraphs can be graphemes.

Learn the term trigraph and the fact that trigraphs can be graphemes.

Use SWI to study the word <consonant>.

Do each of the consonant graphemes <b>, <d>, <f>, <h>, <j>, <k>, <l>, <m>, <n>, <p>, <qu>, <r>, <t>, <v>, <w>, and <z> really represent only one sound? Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to find out.

Have the student make a commitment to learn how to write each grapheme as he or she progresses through the lessons. For help with handwriting instruction, watch “Shortcut to Manuscript Handwriting” by Don Potter.

#2 – Grapheme <b> and Marker <b>

Lesson Letter B
Recommended Reading Nursery rhymes with the letter b
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study the word <allophone>. Ask what does it mean? How is it built? What are its relatives? How is the pronunciation represented? Discuss how most graphemes can represent more than one allophone.

Discover the zero allophone by investigating the morphological family for <crumb>.

Use SWI to study the words <etymological> and <marker>. Introduce the term etymological marker.

Learn about how <b> can be an etymological marker by investigating the morphological and etymological family for <debt>.

Look for the double <b> in base words like <rabbit>.

Use SWI to study the word <suffix>. Introduce the concept of a suffix.

Learn about consonant doubling by studying word sums such as web + ed -> webbed. Which other suffixes cause the <b> in <web> to become doubled?

#3 – Grapheme <d> and Marker <d>

Lesson Letter D
Recommended Reading Nursery rhymes with the letter d
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study the word <phoneme>. Discuss how a phoneme differs from an allophone.

Discuss how every English word has a base. Learn about free bases and bound bases.

Does <d> always represent [d]? Use SWI to study the word <educate> with the bound base <duce> to find out. Study the pronunciation of the <d> in <educate>.

Consider the difference between the /d/ phoneme and the allophones [d] as in dog and [ɾ] as in medal. Study homophones of medal: <meddle>, <metal>, and <mettle>.

Revisit the concept of etymological marker by investigating why there’s a <d> in <Wednesday>. Study <wednes>, <wode>, and <wood>. 

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as mud + y -> muddy. Which other suffixes cause the <d> in <mud> to become doubled?

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <d>.

#4 – Grapheme <f>

Lesson Letter F
Recommended Reading Nursery rhymes with the letter f
Topics to Investigate Study the words <of>, <thereof>, <whereof>, and <hereof>.

Revisit the zero allophone by studying the word <halfpenny>.

Learn about how the word <of> is a function word. Learn the difference between a content word and a function word.

Look for the double <f> in base words like <staff>, <cliff>, <off>, and <fluff>.

#5 – Grapheme <h> and Marker <h>

Lesson Letter H
Recommended Reading Nursery rhymes with the letter h, “What Jack Horner Did” by L. Frank Baum
Topics to Investigate Consider the difference between the /h/ phoneme and the allophones [h] as in ham, [ç] as in heat, and [x] as in Hanukkah.

Revisit the zero allophone by comparing the word <shepherd> to the word <herd>.

Revisit the concept of etymological marker by investigating why there’s an <h> in <hour>.

Learn the concept of phonological marker by investigating why there’s an <h> in <yeah>.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <h>.

#6 – Grapheme <j>

Lesson Letter J
Recommended Reading Nursery rhymes with the letter j, “Jack and the Beanstalk” edited by Andrew Lang
Topics to Investigate Does <j> always represent [dʒ]? Find out by using SWI to study one or more of the following words: <fjord>, <jalapeño>, and <Taj Mahal>.

#7 – Grapheme <k>

Lesson Letter K
Recommended Reading Nursery rhymes with the letter k, “How the Beggars Came to Town” by L. Frank Baum
Topics to Investigate Consider the difference between the /k/ phoneme and the allophones [kʰ] as in kid and [k] as in skip.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <k>.

#8 – Grapheme <l> and Marker <l>

Lesson Letter L
Recommended Reading Little Bo Peep” by L. Frank Baum
Topics to Investigate Revisit the concept of etymological marker by reading about why there’s an <l> in the words <stalk>, <talk>, and <walk>.

Look for the double <l> in base words like <wall>, <tall>, and <fill>.

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as pal + ing -> palling. Which other suffixes cause the <l> in <pal> to become doubled?

Does <l> always represent [l]? Find out by using SWI to study one or more of the following words: <tortilla> and <ratatouille>.

Learn how to count syllables. Listen for the phonemically syllabic /l̩/ in words like <sparkle> and <needle>.

#9 – Grapheme <m>

Lesson Letter M
Recommended Reading Complete Version of Ye Three Blind Mice” by John W. Ivimey; Read about the letter thorn, the word <ye>, and the word <the>
Topics to Investigate Look for the double <m> in base words like <gamma> and <stammer>.

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as ram + ed -> rammed. Which other suffixes cause the <m> in <ram> to become doubled?

Study how <m> can be phonetically syllabic in words like <rhythm> and <prism>.

Revisit the zero allophone by using SWI to study the words <mnemonic> and <amnesia>.

#10 – Grapheme <n>

Lesson Letter N
Recommended Reading Raggedy Andy Stories” and “Raggedy Ann Stories” by Johnny Gruelle
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study a word where <n> that represents [ŋ] such as <sink>, <English>, <anxiety>, or <anchor>.

Revisit the zero allophone by using SWI to study one or more of the following word pairs: <hymn> and <hymnist>, <autumn> and <autumnal>, <column> and <columnar>.

Look for the double <n> in base words like <Ann>, <penny>, <inn>, and <funnel>.

Study the homophones <in> and <inn>.

Study the homophones <an> and <Ann>.

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as run + ing -> running. Which other suffixes cause the <n> in <run> to become doubled?

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <n>.

#11 – Grapheme <p> and Marker <p>

Lesson Letter P
Recommended Reading The Tale of Pigling Bland” by Beatrix Potter
Topics to Investigate Consider the difference between the /p/ phoneme and the allophones [pʰ] as in pat and [p] as in spot.

Study the morphological family for the bound base <pter>. Revisit the zero phoneme by comparing the grapheme and phoneme correspondences of <helicopter> to the grapheme and phoneme correspondences of <pterosaur>.

Revisit the concept of etymological marker by investigating why there’s an <p> in <receipt>.

Look for the double <p> in base words like <apple>, <pepper>, <poppy>, and <guppy>.

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as slip + y -> slippy. Which other suffixes cause the <p> in <slip> to become doubled?

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <p>.

#12 – Grapheme <qu>

Lesson Letter Q
Recommended Reading The Nursery ‘Alice’” by Lewis Carroll
Topics to Investigate Can <qu> also represent [k]? Study words such as <liquor>, <unique>, and <plaque> to find out.

Is <q> without <u> a grapheme? Study words such as <qat> and <qoph>, then make a hypothesis.

#13 – Grapheme <r>

Lesson Letter R
Recommended Reading Teeny-Weeny” by Eugene Field
Topics to Investigate Does <r> always represent [ɹ]? Use SWI to study the word <February> and the abbreviation <Mrs.> to find out.

Study how <r> can be phonetically syllabic in words like <flour> and <fire>.

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as slip + y -> slippy. Which other suffixes cause the <p> in <slip> to become doubled?

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <r>.

#14 – Grapheme <t> and Marker <t>

Lesson Letter T
Recommended Reading Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland” by Lewis Carroll
Topics to Investigate Consider the difference between the /t/ phoneme and the allophones [tʰ] as in tap, [t] as in stop and [ɾ] as in metal.

Study homophones of metal: <meddle>, <medal>, and <mettle>.

What other allophones can <t> represent? Use SWI to study the free base <act>. Compare the grapheme and phoneme correspondences in the word <act> to those in the word <action>. Use SWI to study the free base <quest>. Compare the grapheme and phoneme correspondences in the word <quest> to those in the word <question>. Use SWI to study the free base <moist>. Compare the grapheme and phoneme correspondences in the word <moist> to those in the word <moisten>.

Revisit the concept of etymological marker by investigating why there’s a <t> in <ballet>.

Look for the double <t> in base words like <watt>, <petty>, <mitt>, <otter>, and <putt>.

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as rat + y -> ratty. Which other suffixes cause the <t> in <rat> to become doubled?

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <t>.

#15 – Grapheme <v>

Lesson Letter V
Recommended Reading Over in the Meadow” by Olive A. Wadsworth
Topics to Investigate Does <v> always represent [v]? Study the grapheme and phoneme correspondences in the phrase “have to” and find out. Study how the word <have> can be a homophone to the world <half>. Compare <half> to <halves>.

#16 – Grapheme <w> and Marker <w>

Lesson Letter W
Recommended Reading The Wake-Up Story” by Eudora Bumstead and other stories in “Stories for Little Children” compiled by Susan S. Harriman
Topics to Investigate Revisit the concept of etymological marker by learning why there’s a <w> in the word <two>.

Use SWI to study the words <answer> and <sword>.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <w>.

#17 – Grapheme <z> and Marker <z>

Lesson Letter Z
Recommended Reading The Wonderful Wizard of Oz” by L. Frank Baum
Topics to Investigate Does <z> always represent [z]? Study the words <seizure> and <pretzel> to find out.

Revisit the concept of etymological marker by investigating why there’s a <z> in <rendez-vous>.

Use SWI to study the word <pizza>.

Look for the double <z> in base words like <snazzy>, <fizz>, <dizzy>, and <buzz>.

#18 – Review of Section 1

Lesson Review of Single-Sound Consonants
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Revisit the question, “Do each of the graphemes <b>, <d>, <f>, <h>, <j>, <k>, <l>, <m>, <n>, <p>, <qu>, <r>, <t>, <v>, <w>, and <z> really represent only one sound?”

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 2 allophones for <b>, 5 allophones for <d>, 3 allophones for <f>, 4 allophones for <h>, 5 allophones for <j>, 2 allophones for <k>, 2 allophones for <l>, 2 allophones for <m>, 4 allophones for <n>, 3 allophones for <p>, 2 allophones for <qu>, 2 allophones for <r>, 6 allophones for <t>, 2 allophones for <v>, 1 allophone for <w>, and 4 allophones for <z>.

Review concepts such as morpheme, grapheme, phoneme, allophone, zero allophone, free base, bound base, prefix, suffix, etymological marker, phonological marker, consonant, consonant doubling, function word, and content word.

#19 – Intro to Section 2

Lesson Consonant Digraphs
Recommended Reading The Second Labor – Hercules Kills the Water-Snake of Lake Lerna” by Mary E. Burt
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study the word <digraph>. What does it mean? How is it built? What are its relatives? How is the pronunciation represented? 

#20 – Grapheme <ck>

Lesson Consonant Digraph CK
Recommended Reading Hickory, Dickory, Dock” by L. Frank Baum
Topics to Investigate Investigate the relationship between <c> and <ck> in the following word pairs: <picnic> and <picnicking>, <panic> and <panicking>.

#21 – Grapheme <ch> and Marker <ch>

Lesson Consonant Digraph CH
Recommended Reading My Children’s Robert Louis Stevenson’s Paint Book” by Robert Louis Stevenson, “The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson for Boys and Girls” by Jacqueline M. Overton
Topics to Investigate What other jobs can <ch> do besides represent [tʃ], [k] or [ʃ]? Investigate the words <loch>, <fuchsia>, and <yacht> to find out.

#22 – *<ng> is Not a Grapheme

Lesson Consonant Digraph NG
Recommended Reading “Farewell to the Farm” and other poems from “Robert Louis Stevenson Reader” compiled by Catherine T. Bryce
Topics to Investigate There is no *<ng> grapheme. Study the <n> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn about velar consonants in English. Notice how the <g> in <king> velarizes the <n> and then zeroes.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <long>, <English>, <young>, <strong>, <anger>, <mango>, <sponge>, and <angel>.

#23 – Grapheme <sh>

Lesson Consonant Digraph SH
Recommended Reading The Shower” and other poems in “Young Folks Book of Poetry” selected and arranged by Loomis J. Campbell, “The Little Acorn” by Lucy Wheelock
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study one or more of the following words from the video: <she>, <ship> <shell>, <wish>, <leash>, <marsh>, <childish>, <foolish>, <bookish>, <shower>, <shelter>, <gush>, <rush>, <splashes>, and <dashes>.

Use SWI to study the word <grasshopper>. Why isn’t there an <sh> grapheme in this word?

#24 – Grapheme <th>

Lesson Consonant Digraph TH
Recommended Reading The Three-Legged Stool” by Isa L. Wright
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study one or more of the following words from the video: <the>, <father>, <smooth>, <three>, <birthday>, <math>, <there>, <with>, and <them>.

Use SWI to study the word <pothole>? Why isn’t there a <th> grapheme in this word?

#25 – Grapheme <wh>

Lesson Consonant Digraph WH
Recommended Reading The Unseen Wind” in “Sing-Song: A Nursery Rhyme Book” by Christina G. Rossetti, “Why the Tail of the Fox Has a White Tip” by Florence Holbrook in “Stories for Little Children
Topics to Investigate Study the <wh> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck

Study the following words from the video: <who>, <whose>, <whole>, <whom>, and <whomever>. Notice how <wh> before <o> represents [h] in all of these words.

#26 – Review of Section 2

Lesson Review of Consonant Digraphs
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Study the graphemes <ck>, <ch>, <sh>, <th>, and <wh> with the LEX Grapheme Deck.

#27 – Intro to Section 3

Lesson Introduction to Multi-Letter Vowel Phonograms
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Learn the IPA key for American English on pages 105-106 of “Dyslexia and Spelling: Making Sense of it All” by Kelli Sandman-Hurley Ed.D. Study the 15 vowel phonemes, 2 semi-vowel phonemes, and 8 liquid phonemes.

Learn about syllables and how every syllable must have a nucleus.

#28 – Grapheme <ai>

Lesson Vowel Phonogram AI
Recommended Reading Rain” and other poems in “A Child’s Garden of Verses” by Robert Louis Stevenson
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <mountain>, <bargain>, <fountain>, <chieftain>, and <captain>. Can <ai> represent a schwa sound?

Investigate how <ai> can represent [ɛ] before <r> by studying the words <air>, <fair>, <hair>, <lair>, and <pair>.

Study loanwords with the <ai> grapheme such as <bonsai>, <samurai>, <haiku>, and <plaid>. What other allophones can <ai> represent?

#29 – Grapheme <ay>

Lesson Vowel Phonogram AY
Recommended Reading A Happy Child” and other poems in “Under the Window” by Kate Greenaway
Topics to Investigate Study loanwords with the <ay> grapheme such as <kayak> and <bayou>. Can <ay> represent [aɪ]?

Study more words with the <ay> grapheme. Are there any native English words where <ay> is not final in a base?

#30 – *<eigh> is Not a Grapheme

Lesson Vowel Phonogram EIGH
Recommended Reading The Freighter” and other poems in “The Peter Patter Book” by Leroy F. Jackson
Topics to Investigate There is no *<eigh> grapheme.

Analyze the words <eight>, <freight>, <weight>, <sleigh>, and <neigh> with <igh> as an etymological marker that does not represent a pronunciation. Now, what are the GPCs in these words? Use the LEX Grapheme Deck and Etymonline to identify word cousins to these words that can be used to support this analysis.

Use SWI to study the word <height>. What does the word mean? How is it built? What are its relatives? What are the GPCs in <height>? What is the <igh> in height marking?

#31 – Grapheme <ee>

Lesson Vowel Phonogram EE
Recommended Reading The ‘Go-Sleep’ Story” by Eudora Bumstead and other stories from “In the Child’s Word” by Emilie Poulsson
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study the words <be> and <been>. Is there an <ee> grapheme in <been>?

Study the words <fiancée>, <matinée>, <protegée>, <purée>, and <toupee>. Can <ee> represent [eɪ]?

Compare <fiancé> to <fiancée> and <protegé> to <protegée>. What is the role of the <-ee> suffix in <fiancée> and <protegée>?

#32 – Grapheme <igh> and Marker <igh>

Lesson Vowel Phonogram IGH
Recommended Reading Poor Dog Bright” and other rhymes from “Mother Goose’s Nursery Rhymes
Topics to Investigate Analyze the word <straight> with <igh> as an etymological marker that does not represent a pronunciation. Now, what are the GPCs in this word?

Study the word <might> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

#33 – Grapheme <oa>

Lesson Vowel Phonogram OA
Recommended Reading Where Go the Boats” by Robert Louis Stevenson and other selections from “Young Folks’ Treasury Vol. 2: Childhood’s Favorites and Fairy Stories” by Robert Louis Stevenson, The Crescent Moon, Child Poems” by Rabindranath Tagore
Topics to Investigate Read why <broad> is spelled with the <oa> grapheme. Study the history of <broad> and <breadth> using this diachronic chart.

Investigate how <oa> can represent [ɔ] before <r> by studying the words <oar>, <roar>, <boar>, <board>, and <hoard>.

Study the homophones <oar>, <or>, and <ore>.

Study the homophones <board> and <bored>.

Study the homophones <hoard> and <horde>.

Read about the homophone principle.

#34 – Grapheme <au>

Lesson Vowel Phonogram AU
Recommended Reading The Chorus of Frogs” by Mrs. Hawkshaw and other poems from “Poems My Children Love Best of All” edited by Clifton Johnson, “Little Folks’ Book of Verse” edited by Clifton Johnson
Topics to Investigate Study the <ugh> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. What are the graphemes in <laugh>?

Study loanwords with the <au> grapheme such as <taupe> and <sauerkraut>. What other allophones can <au> represent?

How is the word <aunt> pronounced in your dialect? Have you heard it pronounced with a different vowel sound? Consider how useful it is that people all over the world can spell English words in the same way even though pronunciations may differ from one dialect to another.

Use SWI to study the words <cause> and <because>. Notice how <au> represents a schwa sound in <because>.

#35 – Grapheme <aw>

Lesson Vowel Phonogram AW
Recommended Reading Margery Daw” and other rhymes in “The Little Mother Goose” illustrated by Jessie Wilcox Smith
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study one or more words from the video lesson: <jaw>, <paw>, <draw>, <bawl>, <drawl>, <shawl>, <pawn>, <fawn>, <lawn>, <hawk>, <gawk>, and <saw>.

#36 – Grapheme <oi>

Lesson Vowel Phonogram OI
Recommended Reading In the Meadow” by Olive A. Wadsworth and other selections in “Little Folks’ Book of Verse” edited by Clifton Johnson, “Over in the Meadow” by Olive A. Wadsworth
Topics to

Investigate

Use SWI to study the words <go> and <do>. Compare the structure of <going> and <doing> to the structure of <boing>.

Study French loanwords with the <oi> grapheme such as <soiree> and <memoir>. Notice how <oi> can represent [wɑ] in these words.

Investigate the word <choir> with SWI.

#37 – Grapheme <oy>

Lesson Phonogram OY
Recommended Reading Development” by Robert Browning, “The Story of the Golden Apple,” by Pamela McArthur Cole
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study one or more words from the video lesson: <boy>, <joy>, <toy>, and <Troy>.

Investigate the word <coyote> with SWI.

#38 – Grapheme <ui>

Lesson Phonogram UI
Recommended Reading The Walnut Tree” and other fables by Aesop in “Aesop’s Fables” illustrated by Arthur Rackham
Topics to Investigate Study the <ui> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck.

Use SWI to study the base <fru> and the words <fruit> and <fruition>. Also study the base <circ> and the words <circuit> and <circuitous>. When <ui> surfaces in these words, is it one grapheme or two? Remember that graphemes can’t cross morpheme boundaries.

#39 – Grapheme <er>

Lesson Phonogram ER
Recommended Reading The Gingerbread Man” by Olive Beaupre Miller and other stories from “In the Nursery of My Bookhouse
Topics to Investigate Study the <er> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck

Learn the meanings of rhotic, non-rhotic, and rhotacized.

Learn about the schwar.

Study the morphological families of words where the <r> in the <er> grapheme gets doubled. Study <ver> with <aver> and <averring>, <ter> with <deter> and <deterred>, and <fer> with <refer> and <referral>.

Study the morphological families of words where the <r> in the <er> grapheme does not get doubled. Study <over> with <overing> and <overed>, as well as <swer> with <answer> and <answering>. Is the <w> in answer an etymological marker?

Study the suffixes: <-er> and <-ern>.

#40 – Grapheme <ir>

Lesson Phonogram IR
Recommended Reading The Sparrow” and other selections in “Little Folks’ Book of Verse” edited by Clifton Johnson, The Fir Tree” by Hans Christian Anderson in “The Fir-Tree Fairy Book” edited by Clifton Johnson
Topics to Investigate Study the <ir> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck

Study the morphological families of words where the <r> in the <ir> grapheme gets doubled. Study <stir> with <stirred> and <stirring>, <fir> with <firry>, and <whir> with <whirred> and <whirring>.

Study the morphological families of words where the <r> in the <ir> grapheme does not get doubled. Study <emir> with <emirate>, <levir> with <levirate> and <leviratic>, and <vir> with <triumvir> and <triumvirate>.

Study the <ir-> prefix.

#41 – Grapheme <ar>

Lesson Phonogram AR
Recommended Reading Book 2 of “The folk-lore readers” by Eulalie Osgood Grover, “Arthur Made King” from “Famous Legends Adapted for Children” by Emeline Gifford Crommelin
Topics to Investigate Study the <ar> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck.

Study the morphological families of words where the <r> in the <ar> grapheme gets doubled. Study <bar> with <barred> and <barring> as well as <jar> with <jarred> and <jarring>.

Study the morphological families of words where the <r> in the <ar> grapheme does not get doubled. Study <tsar> with <tsarism> and <tsarist> as well as <czar> with <czarism> and <czarist>.

Study words with the <ar-> prefix such as <arrive> and <arbitrary>. Notice how the first <r> in <arrive> represents a zero phoneme.

Study words with the <-ar> suffix such as <beggar> and <liar>.

#42 – Grapheme <ur>

Lesson Phonogram UR
Recommended Reading Days of Birth” and other selections from “The Folk-Lore Readers Book Two” by Eulalie Osgood Grover
Topics to Investigate Study the <ur> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck.

Study the morphological families of words where the <r> in the <ur> grapheme gets doubled. Study <fur> with <furry>, <furred> and <furrily> as well as <spur> with <spurred> and <spurring>.

#43 – Grapheme <or>

Lesson Phonograms OR and WOR
Recommended Reading Pittypat and Tippytoe” and other selections from “Lullaby Land” by Eugene Field
Topics to Investigate Study the <or> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Notice how there is no *<wor> grapheme.

Study the morphological family for a base where the <r> in the <or> grapheme gets doubled by studying <hor> with <abhorred> and <abhorring>.

Study the morphological families of words where the <r> in the <or> grapheme does not get doubled. Study <odor> with <odorous> and <deodorant> as well as <labor> with <labored> and <laboring>. Compare the American spellings, <odor> and <labor>, to the non-American spellings, <odour> and <labour>. Why might the non-American spellings make it easier to tell that the <r> should not get doubled?

Study the <-or> suffix.

Study bases with <orr> such as <torr>, <sorry>, <borrow>  and <horr>.

Study words with the <-or> suffix such as <governor> and <error>.

Study words with the <cor-> prefix such as <corrupt> and <correct>.

#44 – *<ear> is Not a Grapheme

Lesson Vowel Phonogram EAR
Recommended Reading Hinky, Pinky, Pearly Earl” and other selections from “The Peter Patter Book” by Leroy F. Jackson, “Three Little Kittens and Mr. Fox,” “The Little Nut-Tree” rhyme in “The One Strand River and Other Fairy Tales” by Mrs. H. F. Hall, “Bearskin” and other selections from “The Wonder Clock” by Howard Pyle
Topics to Investigate Study the <ea> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Notice how there is no *<ear> grapheme.

Study how <ea> followed by <r> represents [ɪɹ] in <dear>, <hear>, <fear>, <near>, <year>, and <beard>.

Study how <ea> followed by <r> represents [ɛɹ] in <bear>, <pear>, <wear>, and <swear>. 

Study how <ea> followed by <r> represents [ɜɹ] in <earn>, <learn>, <earl>, <earth>, <early>, and <pearl>.

Study how <ea> followed by <r> represents [ɑɹ] in <heart>, <hearth>, and <heark>.

Use SWI to study one of the words listed above and make a hypothesis about why <ea> is the most suitable grapheme choice for the word.

#45 – *<our> is Not a Grapheme

Lesson Vowel Phonogram OUR
Recommended Reading The Fox Without a Tail” and other Fables from “Aesop’s Fables” illustrated by Arthur Rackham
Topics to Investigate Study the <ou> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Notice how there is no *<our> grapheme.

Study how <ou> followed by <r> represents [aʊɹ] in <our>, <hour>, <flour>, <scour>, <sour>, and <dour>.

Study how <ou> followed by <r> represents [ɔɹ] in <four>, <pour>, <mourn>, <gourd>, <court> and <your>.

Study how <ou> followed by <r> represents [ɜɹ] in <journey> and <courage>.

Use SWI to study one of the words listed above and make a hypothesis about why <ou> is the most suitable grapheme choice for the word.

#46 – Review of Section 3

Lesson Review of Multi-Letter Vowel Phonograms
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Make a list of all the multi-letter vowel graphemes in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Organize them into the graphemes that you have studied and graphemes that you have not yet studied. Review the cards for the multi-letter vowel graphemes that you have studied.

#47 – Intro to Section 4

Lesson Introduction to Vowel Letters and the Sounds they Make
Recommended Reading Atlantis, The Lost Island” and other stories in “Stories from Plato and Other Classic Writers” by Mary E. Burt
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to learn 5 allophones for <a>, 4 allophones for <e>, 6 allophones for <i>, 6 allophones for <o>, 6 allophones for <u>, 3 vowel allophones for <y>, and about the replaceable <e>.

#48 – Grapheme <a>

Lesson Letter A Video
Recommended Reading “Raggylug, the Story of a Cottontail Rabbit” and other stories from “Wild Animals I Have Known” by Ernest Seton Thompson
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 5 allophones for <a>.

Study all the ways that <a> can be a morpheme. There is the base word <a>, the prefix <a->, and the suffix <-a>. Find words with each of these morphemes.

Study syllable structure.

Break the following one-syllable, closed-syllable words up to show which grapheme is spelling the onset (if it has one), which grapheme is spelling the nucleus, and which grapheme is spelling the coda of each word: <an>, <am>, <as>, <at>, <ax>, <bad>, <mad>, <ham>, <jam>, <map>, <nap>, <hat>, <fan>, <man>, <ate>, <late>, <fame>, <tame>, <bake>, <quake>, <ape>, <whale>, <wave>, and <fade>. Note that a closed syllable is a syllable with a coda. Note how the final <e> in <ate>, <late>, <fame>, <tame>, <bake>, <quake>, <ape>, <whale>, <wave>, and <fade> is a marker, not a grapheme.

Study the following suffixes: <-al>, <-ac>, and <-an>.

Study the following word sums: bake + er -> baker, late + er -> later, make + er -> maker. What does the <-er> suffix mean in each of these words?

Use SWI to study the word <paper>. Is there an <-er> suffix in this word?

Study how <a> can represent [ə] in words like <abuzz> and <afraid>.

Study how <a> represents a zero phoneme in <creature> but not in <create> by studying these words with SWI.

Study the words <a>, <all>, <an>, <father>, and <what> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

Study the words <than> and <that> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Study the word <again> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <a>. Organize them into graphemes that you have studied and graphemes that you have not yet studied. Review the cards for the graphemes containing <a> that you have already studied. This should include <a>, <ai>, <ay>, <oa>, <au>, <aw>, and <ar>.

#49 – Grapheme <e> and Marker <e>

Lesson Letter E Video
Recommended Reading The Tempest” and other stories in “Tales From Shakespeare” by Charles and Mary Lamb 
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 4 allophones for <e>.

Study all the ways that <e> can be a morpheme. There is the base <e>, the prefix <e->, and the connecting vowel <-e->. Find words with each of these morphemes.

Break the following one-syllable, closed-syllable words up to show which grapheme (is spelling the onset (if it has one), which grapheme is spelling the nucleus, and which grapheme (or graphemes) is spelling the coda of each word: <egg>, <end>, <elk>, <elm>, <elf>, <leg>, <ten>, <bell>, <web>, <pen>, <vest>, <nest>, <deck>, <wet>, <bed>, <eve>, <meme>, <eke>, and <here>. Revisit how a closed syllable is a syllable with a coda. Note how the final <e> in <eve>, <meme>, <eke>, and <here> is a marker, not a grapheme.

Study the replaceable <e> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Notice how the single, final, non-syllabic <e> is an <e> that does not form the nucleus of a syllable. This <e> is an orthographic marker, which does not represent a pronunciation. Study all the jobs of this marker.

Study the prefixes: <de->, <em->, <en->, <re->, and <pre->. 

Study the suffixes: <-ed>, <-able>, <-en>, <-ate>, <-ment>, <-end>, and <-ee>.

Watch “For [e]’s a Jolly Good Fellow! The Final Non-Syllabic [e]” from the classroom of Mary Beth Steven.

Break the following one-syllable, open-syllable words up to show which grapheme is spelling the onset and which is spelling the nucleus of each word: <she>, <be>, <me>, and <we>. Note that an open syllable is a syllable without a coda.

Study the words <have> and <the> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

Study the words <she>, <then>, <there>, <together>, <when>, <where>, and <whether> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Study the words <been>, <eight>, <height>, and <people> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <e>. Organize them into graphemes that you have studied and graphemes that you have not yet studied. Review the cards for the graphemes containing <e> that you have already studied. This should include <e>, replaceable <e>, <ee> and <er>.

#50 – Grapheme <i>

Lesson Letter I Video
Recommended Reading Precocious Piggy” and other selections from “The Riverside Readers, Third Reader” by James H. Van Sickle and Wilhelmina Seegmiller
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 6 allophones for <i>.

Study all the ways that <i> can be a morpheme. There are the bases <I> and <i>, the suffix <-i>, and the connecting vowel <-i->. Find words with each of these morphemes.

Break the following one-syllable, closed-syllable words up to show which grapheme (is spelling the onset (if it has one), which grapheme is spelling the nucleus, and which grapheme (or graphemes) is spelling the coda of each word: <is>, <it>, <if>, <in>, <inch>, <bit>, <quit>, <hid>, <lid>, <big>, <kick>, <fish>, <trip>, <twin>, <crib>, <bike>, <fine>, <kite>, <pipe>, <ride>, <kind>, <find>, <wild>, <child>, <pint>. Revisit how a closed syllable is a syllable with a coda.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <item>, <direct>, <rival>, <rider>, <happier>, <funniest>, <patriot>, <medium>, <piano>, <onion>, <million>, <familiar>, <California>, and <spaniel>.

Study the prefixes: <inter->, <il->, <im->, <in->, <ir->, and <anti->.

Study the suffixes: <-ic>, <-ible>, <-ite>, <-ive>, and <-ish>.

Study the word <I> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

Study the words <think>, <which> and <with> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <i>. Organize them into graphemes that you have studied and graphemes that you have not yet studied. Review the cards for the graphemes containing <i> that you have already studied. This should include <i>, <ai>, <igh>, <oi>, <ui>, and <ir>.

#51 – Grapheme <o> and Marker <o>

Lesson Letter O Video
Recommended Reading The Song of the Corn Popper” and other selections from “The Young and Field Literary Readers, Book Two” by Ella Flagg Young and Walter Taylor Field
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 6 allophones for <o>.

Study all the ways that <o> can be a morpheme. There is the base <o>, the prefix <o->, the suffix <-o>, and the connecting vowel <-o->. Find words with each of these morphemes.

Break the following one-syllable, closed-syllable words up to show which grapheme is spelling the onset (if it has one), which grapheme is spelling the nucleus, and which grapheme (or graphemes) is spelling the coda of each word: <on>, <off>, <odd>, <ox>, <dog>, <mom>, <hop>, <dot>, <nod>, <rock>, <moss>, <frog>, <shop>, <broth>, <ode>, <mode>, <mole>, <pole>, <old>, <fold>, <roll>, <bolt>, <son>, <ton>, <love>, <come>, <some>, <none>, <done>, <once> and <move>. Revisit how a closed syllable is a syllable with a coda. Is the video lesson correct when it says that “letter <o> represents the short <o> sound in closed syllables”?

Break the following one-syllable, open-syllable words up to show which grapheme is spelling the onset and which is spelling the nucleus of each word: <go>, <to>, <do>, <who>, and <two>. Note that an open syllable is a syllable without a coda.

Study the prefixes: <co->, <non->, <con-> and <over->.

Study the <-ion> suffix.

Use SWI to study the word <people>. Notice that the <o> in <people> is an etymological marker.

Study the homophones <to>, <too>, and <two>. Revisit why there is a <w> in the word <two>. Notice how the <w> is an etymological marker, which does not represent a pronunciation.

Study the homophones <son> and <sun>.

Read why <love> is spelled with an <o>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <over>, <motive>, <open>, <okay>, <ado>, and <Monday>.

Study the words <come>, <do>, <done>, <mother>, <none>, <of>, <one>, and <to> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

Study the words <both>, <month>, <other>, and <who> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <o>. Organize them into graphemes that you have studied and graphemes that you have not yet studied. Review the cards for the graphemes containing <o> that you have already studied. This should include <o>, <oa>, <oi>, <oy>, and <or>.

#52 – Grapheme <u> and Marker <u>

Lesson Letter U Video
Recommended Reading Summer” and other selections from “Easy Stories” by Elizabeth A. Turner
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 6 allophones for <u>.

Study all the ways that <u> can be a morpheme. There is the base <u> and the connecting vowel <-u->. Find words with each of these morphemes.

Break the following one-syllable, closed-syllable words up to show which grapheme (or graphemes) is spelling the onset (if it has one), which grapheme is spelling the nucleus, and which grapheme is spelling the coda of each word: <up>, <us>, <dug>, <sun>, <nut>, <gum>, <rub>, <drum>, <jump>, <luck>, <shrub>, <shut>, <cube>, <mute>, <huge>, <mule>, <fume>, <tube>, <duke>, <rule>, <flute>, <tune>, <put>, <push>, and <bush>. Revisit how a closed syllable is a syllable with a coda. Is the video lesson correct when it says that “letter <u> represents the short <u> sound in closed syllables”?

Break the following one-syllable, open-syllable words up to show which grapheme (or graphemes) is spelling the onset and which is spelling the nucleus of each word: <blue>, <true>, <glue>. Note that an open syllable is a syllable without a coda. Examine why there’s an <e> at the end of these words.

Study the prefixes: <under-> and <un->.

Study the suffixes: <-ure> and <-ful>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <unzip>, <umbrella>, <unit>, <humor>, <human>, <music>, <unite>, <rumor>, <fluent>, <tuna>, <ruin>, and <fluid>.

Study the word <put> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

Study the word <much> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <u>. Organize them into graphemes that you have studied and graphemes that you have not yet studied. Review the cards for the graphemes containing <u> that you have already studied. This should include <u>, <au>, <ui>, and <ur>.

#53 A – Grapheme <y>

Lesson Letter Y Video
Recommended Reading Dumpy, The Pony” and other selections from “The Riverside Readers, Second Reader” by James H. Van Sickle and Wilhelmina Seegmiller
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 4 allophones for <y>.

Study all the ways that <y> can be a morpheme. There is the base <y> and the suffix <-y>. Find words with each of these morphemes.

Break the following one-syllable, closed-syllable words up to show which grapheme (or graphemes) is spelling the onset, which grapheme is spelling the nucleus, and which grapheme (or graphemes) is spelling the coda of each word: <myth>, <hymn>, <style>, <rhyme>, and <type>. Revisit how a closed syllable is a syllable with a coda. Is the video lesson correct when it says that “letter <y> represents the short <i> sound in closed syllables that begin and end with a consonant”?

Break the following one-syllable, open-syllable words up to show which grapheme (or graphemes) is spelling the onset and which grapheme is spelling the nucleus of each word: <by>, <cry>, <dry>, <fly>, and <shy>. Note that an open syllable is a syllable without a coda.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <beyond>, <farmyard>, <canyon>, <rhythm>, <cylinder>, <crystal>, <reply>, <satisfy>, <lullaby>, <happy>, <baby>, <nasty>, <sadly>, and <dirty>.

Study the suffixes: <-ty>, <-ly>, and <-ary>.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <y>. Organize them into graphemes that you have studied and graphemes that you have not yet studied. Review the cards for the graphemes containing <y> that you have already studied. This should include <y>, <ay>, and <oy>.

Study the words <any> and <many> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

Study the word <why> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

#53 B – Grapheme <ye>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for this grapheme.
Recommended Reading Baby Bye” and other selections from “Open Sesame! Poetry and Prose for School-Days” edited by Blanche Wilder Bellamy and Maud Wilder Goodwin
Topics to Investigate Read the <ye> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. What are the grapheme and phoneme correspondences in <bye>, <dye>, and <rye>?

Study the word <eye> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

#53 C – Grapheme <yr>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for this grapheme.
Recommended Reading Stanzas Written on the Road Between Florence and Pisa” by Lord Byron and other selections from “The Blue Poetry Book” by Andrew Lang
Topics to Investigate Read the <yr> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck.

Use SWI to study the word <myrtle>.

#54 – Review of Section 4

Lesson Review of Vowel Letters and the Sounds They Make
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Reread the cards in the LEX Grapheme Deck for <a>, <e>, replaceable <e>, <i>, <o>, <u>, and <y>.

Revisit digraphs that contain the letter <a>: <ai>, <ay>, <oa>, <au>, <aw>, and <ar>.

Revisit digraphs that contain the letter <e>: Revisit <ee> and <er>.

Revisit digraphs that contain the letter <i>: <ai>, <igh>, <oi>, <ui>, and <ir>.

Revisit digraphs that contain the letter <o>: <oa>, <oi>, <oy>, and <or>.

Revisit digraphs that contain the letter <u>: <au>, <ui>, and <ur>.

Revisit digraphs that contain the letter <y>: <ay>, <oy>, <ye>, <yr>.

Read how there are only two syllable types: “closed, which have a consonant coda, and open, which have no coda.”

#55 – Intro to Section 5

Lesson Introduction to Multi-Sound Consonant Letters
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 6 allophones for <c>, 4 allophones for <g>, 5 allophones for <s>, and 6 allophones for <x>.

#56 – Grapheme <c>

Lesson Letter C Video
Recommended Reading Belling the Cat” and other selections from “In the Nursery of My Bookhouse” edited by Olive Beaupré Miller
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “Letter c makes a soft c sound before e, i, or y. Otherwise, it usually makes a hard c sound.” A better understanding is “the <c> grapheme can represent [kʰ] as in cat, [k] as in scab, [s] as in city, [ʃ] as in glacier, [tʃ] as in cello, or [∅] as in acquire.”

Use SWI to investigate one or more of the words called “exceptions” in the lesson: <facade>, <muscle>, <indict>, <cello>, <concerto>, <crescendo>, and <ocean>.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter <c>.

#57 – Grapheme <g> and Marker <g>

Lesson Letter G Video
Recommended Reading The Giraffe and the Palms” and other selections from ”Happy Hour Stories” by M. Genevieve Silvester and Edith Marshall Peter
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the letter g makes two consonant sounds.” A better understanding is “the <g> grapheme can represent [g] as in gap, [dʒ] as in gem, [ʒ] as in rouge, or [∅] as in long.”

Use SWI to study the words <reign> and <feign>. Make a hypothesis about whether or not the <g> in these words is an etymological marker.

Look for the double <g> in base words like <ragg>, <egg>, <wiggle>, <toggle>, and <juggle>.

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as big + er -> bigger. Which other suffixes cause the <g> in <big> to become doubled?

Study the <-ing> suffix.

Study the words <get>, <give>, and <gone> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

#58 – Grapheme <s> and Marker <s>

Lesson Letter S Video
Recommended Reading At the Sea-Side” by Robert Louis Stevenson and other selections from “The Robert Louis Stevenson Reader” by Catherine T. Bryce
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the letter s makes two consonant sounds.” A better understanding is “the <s> grapheme can represent [s] as in slip, [z] as in rise, [ʃ] as in tension, [ʒ] as in erosion, or [∅] as in Illinois.”

The lesson says that *<si> before an unstressed vowel can represent two sounds. It can’t because there is no *<si> grapheme.

Use SWI to study the word <isle>. Make a hypothesis about whether or not the <s> in this word is an etymological marker.

Look for the double <s> in base words like <pass>, .

Study consonant doubling again by studying word sums such as big + er -> bigger. Which other suffixes cause the <g> in <big> to become doubled?

Study the prefixes <super->, <mis->, <semi->, <dis->, <trans->, <sub->, and <suf->.

Study the suffixes <-s>, <-es>, <-ness>, <-less>, <-some>, and <-est>.

Study the words <busy>, <some>, <son>, and <was> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

Study the words <such>, <these>, <this>, <those>, and <whose> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Study the words <against>, <because>, <said>, <says>, and <suit> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

#59 – Grapheme <x>

Lesson Letter X Video
Recommended Reading The Fox and the Grapes” and other selections from “Aesop’s Fables in Words of One Syllable” by Mary Godolphin, “Stories of Greek Gods, Heroes, and Men” by Caroline H. Harding and Samuel B. Harding
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the letter x makes two consonant sounds.” A better understanding is “the <x> grapheme can represent [ks] as in fox, [gz] as in exit, [kʃ] as in complexion, [gʒ] as in luxury, [z] as in Xerxes, and [∅] as in beaux.

Study the <ex-> prefix.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words from the video lesson: <xylophone>, <xebec>, <Xerxes>, <Xenophon>, <ax>, <ox>, <six>, <tax>, <fox>, <exit>, <axle>, <next>, <text>, and <mixer>.

#60 – Review of Sections 1, 4, and 5

Lesson Review of Alphabet Letters and the Sounds They Make
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 5 allophones for <a>, 2 allophones for <b>, 6 allophones for <c>, 5 allophones for <d>, 4 allophones for <e>, 3 allophones for <f>, 4 allophones for <g>, 4 allophones for <h>, 6 allophones for <i>, 5 allophones for <j>, 2 allophones for <k>, 2 allophones for <l>, 2 allophones for <m>, 4 allophones for <n>, 6 allophones for <o>, 3 allophones for <p>, 2 allophones for <qu>, 2 allophones for <r>, 5 allophones for <s>, 6 allophones for <t>, 6 allophones for <u>, 2 allophones for <v>, 1 allophone for <w>, 6 allophones for <x>, 4 allophones for <y>, and 4 allophones for <z>.

Can the student write all capital and lowercase letters of the alphabet? If not, rewatch the video titled “Shortcut to Manuscript Handwriting” by Don Potter.

#61 – #68 – Section 6 on Syllables – Skip these Lessons

Lesson Introduction to Syllables; Closed Syllables Video; Open Syllables Video; Consonant le Syllables Video; R-Controlled Syllables; Vowel-Consonant-E Syllables; Vowel Team Syllables; Review Lesson of Syllables
Recommended Reading Aesop’s Fables in Words of One Syllable” by Mary Godolphin, “Swiss Family Robinson in Words of One Syllable” by Mary Godolphin, “The Children’s First Book of Poetry” selected by Emilie Kip Baker, “Little Rhymes for Little Readers” by Wilhelmina Seegmiller; “Dream Blocks” by Aileen Cleveland Higgins; “Our Common Friends and Foes: A Nature Reader” by Edwin Arthur Turner
Topics to Investigate Students should skip these video lessons about syllable types because they are full of inaccuracies. Instead, students may spend time reading from the literature selections.

Teachers and tutors should consider taking the LEXinar titled “Syllables: Fact & Fiction” by Gina Cooke and read the blog post, “Fickle Syllable Boondoggle“.

Read the blog post, “Syllable Use Helps With Spelling? Not Likely” by Mary Beth Steven.

#69 – Schwa

Lesson The Schwa Sound
Recommended Reading Merriam-Webster Children’s Dictionary
Topics to Investigate Learn how English is a stress-timed language.

Teachers and tutors should consider taking the LEXinar titled “Stress and the Schwa” by Gina Cooke.

Use SWI to study one or more of the words in the video: <the>, <about>, <dragon>, <secret>, <animal>, <away>, <problem>, <offend>, and <idea>. Notice how spellings do more than represent sound, they communicate meaning. As Gina Cooke has stated, “Morphology, etymology, and phonology work together in a hierarchy to convey meaning.”

#70 – Intro to Section 7

Lesson More Single-Sound Phonograms
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to learn 1 allophone for <tch>, 1 allophone for <ph>, 1 allophone for <rh>, 1 allophone for <gh>, 2 allophones for <gn>, 1 allophone for <kn>, 1 allophone for <wr>, and 1 allophone for <dg>.

Also study the following graphemes, which were not mentioned in the video. Learn 1 allophone for <mb>, 1 allophone for <pf>, 1 allophone for <ugh>, 1 allophone for <ps>, 1 allophone for <rrh>, 1 allophone for <sch>, 1 allophone for <cch>, and 1 allophone for <gl>.

Note that *<aigh>, *<ci>, and *<ti> are not graphemes.

#71 – Grapheme <tch>

Lesson Phonogram TCH
Recommended Reading The Little Toy Land of the Dutch” and other selections from “In the Nursery of My Bookhouse” edited by Olive Beaupré Miller; “The Boy Hero of Harlem” and other selections from “Up One Pair of Stairs of My Bookhouse” edited by Olive Beaupré Miller
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <pitch>, <catch>, <fetch>, <itch>, <etch>, <hutch>, <hatch>, <patch>, <sketch>, <stitch>, <stretchy>, <matches>, and <Dutch>.

Watch “Final ‘tch’ trigraph” from the classroom of Mary Beth Steven.

#72 – Grapheme <ph>

Lesson Phonogram PH
Recommended Reading Phaeton” from “Through the Fairy Halls of My Bookhouse” edited by Olive Beaupré Miller
Topics to Investigate Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <phone>, <alphabet>, <graph>, <Phoebe>, <elephant>, <nephew>, <trophy>, <sphere>, <physical>, <physics>, <phonics>, <phonogram>, <Phaeton>, <nymph>, <Phoebus>, and <dolphin>.

#73 – Grapheme <rh>

Lesson Phonogram RH
Recommended Reading Sunny Rhymes for Happy Children” by Olive Beaupré Miller
Topics to Investigate Replace the understanding from the video that “<rh> is a phonogram when <r> and <h> are together in the same syllable” with the understanding that “<rh> is a grapheme when <r> and <h> are together in the same morpheme, but are not part of an <rrh> grapheme.”

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <rhyme>, <rhinoceros>, <rhinestone>, <rhubarb>, <rhapsody>, and <rhetoric>.

#74 – Grapheme <gh>

Lesson Phonogram GH
Recommended Reading Abridged version of “A Christmas Carol” by Charles Dickens, “A Christmas Carol” by Charles Dickens and illustrated by Arthur Rackham
Topics to Investigate Replace the understanding from the video that “<gh> is a phonogram when <g> and <h> are together in the same syllable” with the understanding that “<gh> is a grapheme when <g> and <h> are together in the same morpheme, but are not part of an <igh> or <ugh> grapheme or marker.”

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <doghouse>, <ghost>, <ghastly>, <ghoul>, <aghast>, <ghetto>, and <burgh>.

Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to make a list of all graphemes that contain the letter string <gh>.

#75 – Grapheme <gn>

Lesson Phonogram GN
Recommended Reading Ten at One Stroke” and other stories from “Fairy Stories My Children Love Best of All” by Edgar Dubs Shimer
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 2 allophones for <gn>.

Replace the hypothesis from the video that “<gn> is only a phonogram when <g> and <n> are together in the same syllable” with your own hypothesis. Keep in mind that graphemes represent phonemes inside of morphemes.

Use SWI to study <sign>, <assign> and <signal>. Make a hypothesis about why there is no <gn> grapheme in these words.

Use SWI to study <magnet>. Make a hypothesis about why there is no <gn> grapheme in this word.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <gnat>, <gnash>, <gnome>, <align>, <feign>, <gnocchi>, <lasagna>, and <mignon>. How many allophones can <gn> represent?

#76 – Grapheme <kn>

Lesson Phonogram KN
Recommended Reading Tales of the Round Table” edited by Andrew Lang
Topics to Investigate Replace the understanding from the video that “<kn> is a phonogram when <k> and <n> are together in the same syllable” with the understanding that “<kn> is a grapheme when <k> and <n> are together in the same morpheme.”

Use SWI to study <darkness>. Make a hypothesis about why there is no <kn> grapheme in this word.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <knight>, <knee>, <knife>, <knit>, <knot>, and <know>.

Investigate the homophone pairs <knight> and <night>; <knit> and <nit>; <knot> and <not> as well as <know> and <no>.

#77 – Grapheme <wr>

Lesson Phonogram WR
Recommended Reading The Burgess Animal Book for Children” by Thornton W. Burgess
Topics to Investigate Replace the understanding from the video that “<wr> is a phonogram when <w> and <r> are together in the same syllable” with the understanding that “<wr> is a grapheme when <w> and <r> are together in the same morpheme.”

Use SWI to study <showroom>. Make a hypothesis about why there is no <wr> grapheme in this word.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <wren>, <wrist>, <write>, <wrong>, <wrinkle>, and <wrap>.

Investigate the homophones <write>, <right> and <rite>.

#78 – Grapheme <dg>

Lesson Phonogram DGE
Recommended Reading Shepherd John” and other selections from “Rhymes and Jingles” by Mary Mapes Dodge
Topics to Investigate There is no *<dge> phonogram. Instead, there’s a <dg> grapheme that’s usually followed by a single, final non-syllabic <e>.

Use SWI to study the following words: <fudge>, <badge>, <judge>, <hedge>, <bridge>, <pledge>, <ledge>, <lodge>, <smudge>, and <knowledge>. Are <ledge> and <knowledge> in the same family?

Examine the following words and word sums, then make a hypothesis about when a single, final non-syllabic <e> following a <dg> grapheme must be replaced by a vowel suffix, may be replaced by a vowel suffix, and may not be replaced by a vowel suffix.

judge + able -> judgeable

knowledge + able -> knowledgeable

lodge + er -> lodger

fudge + ed -> fudged

edge + ing -> edging

wedge + ie -> wedgie

pledge + or -> pledgeor

pledge + or -> pledgor

widge + on -> widgeon

ridge + y -> ridgy

hedge + y -> hedgy

#79 – *<aigh> is Not a Grapheme

Lesson Phonogram AIGH
Recommended Reading The Two Crabs” and other selections from “In the Nursery of My Bookhouse” edited by Olive Beaupré Miller
Topics to Investigate There is no *<aigh> grapheme.

Analyze the words <fraight>, <quaigh>, and <straight> with <igh> as an etymological marker that does not represent a pronunciation. Now, what are the GPCs in these words? Use the LEX Grapheme Deck and Etymonline to identify word cousins to these words that can be used to support this analysis.

Use SWI to study the word <straight>. What does the word mean? How is it built? What are its relatives? What are the GPCs in <straight>? What is the <igh> in straight marking?

#80 – *<ci> is Not a Grapheme

Lesson Phonogram CI
Recommended Reading Naming the Baby” and other selections from “Child’s Own Speaker” by E. C. and L. J. Rook
Topics to Investigate There is no *<ci> grapheme.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <artificial>, <crucial>, <delicious>, <gracious>, <precious>, <social>, <spacious>, <special>, <sufficient>, <vicious>, <appreciate>, and <annunciate>. Since graphemes can only represent phonemes inside of morphemes, what conclusion can be made about the grapheme <c>? Can <c> only represent /k/ as in cat and /s/ as in city, or can <c> represent another phoneme?

#81 A – *<ti> is Not a Grapheme

Lesson Phonogram TI
Recommended Reading Multiplication is Vexation” and other selections from “Mother Goose Melodies” published by DeWolfe, Fiske and Company, “One Thousand Poems for Children” edited by Roger Ingpen
Topics to Investigate There is no *<ti> grapheme.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <potential>, <patient>, <ambitious>, <dictionary>, <solution>, <motion>, <confidential>, <illustration>, <nutritious>, <essential>, <multiplication>, and <vexation>. Since graphemes can only represent phonemes inside of morphemes, what conclusion can be made about the grapheme <t>? Can <t> only represent /t/, or can <t> represent another phoneme?

Watch “The Grapheme ‘t’ – Is it always pronounced the same?” from the classroom of Mary Beth Steven.

#81 B – Grapheme <mb>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for this grapheme.
Recommended Reading Dance to Your Daddy,” “Young Lambs to Sell” and other selections from “The Nursery Rhyme Book” edited by Andrew Lang 
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 1 allophone for <mb>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <tomb>, <womb>, and <lamb>.

#81 C – Grapheme <pf>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for this grapheme.
Recommended Reading Hasenpfeffer: Card Game Rules” by Erik Arneson
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to study 1 allophone for <pf>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <dummkopf>, <hasenpfeffer>, <pfui>, <pfft>, <pfennig>, and <pfennige>.

#81 D – Grapheme <ugh> and Marker <ugh>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <ugh>.
Recommended Reading What the Peacock and the Crow Told Each Other” and other stories from “The Boy Who Knew What the Birds Said,” by Padraic Colum
Topics to Investigate Study the <ugh> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 1 allophone for <ugh>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <tough>, <rough>, and <cough>.

Analyze the words <ought>, <bought>, <brought>, <fought>, <sought>, <thought>, <although>, <though>, <dough>, <borough>, <thorough>, <thoroughly>, and <slough> with <ugh> as an etymological marker that does not represent a pronunciation. Now, what are the GPCs in these words? Use the LEX Grapheme Deck and Etymonline to identify word cousins to these words that can be used to support this analysis.

Study the word <daughter> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

Study the word <through> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Study the words <drought>, <enough> and <laugh> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck. Notice that <ugh> can be a grapheme or an etymological marke

#81 E – Grapheme <ps>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <ps>.
Recommended Reading A Psalm of Life” by Henry W. Longfellow and other selections from “Poems that Every Child Should Know” edited by Mary E. Burt, “Eros and Psyche” and other selections from “Children of the Dawn: Old Tales of Greece” by Elsie Finnimore Buckley
Topics to Investigate Study the <ps> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 1 allophone for <ps>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <pshaw>, <psalm>, <psychic>, <psyllium>, <Psyche>, <Pschent>, and <pseudonym>.

#81 F – Grapheme <rrh>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <rrh>.
Recommended Reading The Glory that was Greece” by Lord Byron and other selections from “The Cambridge Book of Poetry for Children” edited by Kenneth Grahame, “The Spartan” by Caroline Dale Snedeker
Topics to Investigate Study the <rrh> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 1 allophone for <rrh>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <myrrh>, <pyrrhic> and <diarrhea>.

#81 G – Grapheme <sch>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <sch>.
Recommended Reading Drawing on Stone: Early European Lithography” by Lynn M. Gould
Topics to Investigate Study the <sch> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 1 allophone for <sch>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <schwa>, <borsch>, <mensch>, <tusche>, and <schuss>.

Use SWI to study <school>. Make a hypothesis about why there is not an <sch> grapheme in this word.

#81 H – Grapheme <cch>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <cch>.
Recommended Reading Bacchus” and other selections from “The Age of Fable; or Stories of Gods and Heroes” by Thomas Bulfinch
Topics to Investigate Study the <cch> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 1 allophone for <cch>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <gnocchi>, <Bacchus>, <zucchini>, <radicchio>, and <zucchetto>.

#81 I – Grapheme <gl>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <gl>.
Recommended Reading Tagliatelle with Ham” “Tagliatelle ‘alla Romagnola’” and “Tagliatelle with Sausages” from “Leaves from our Tuscan Kitchen or How to Cook Vegetables” by Janet Ross
Topics to Investigate Study the <gl> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 1 allophone for <gl>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <consigliere>, <tagliatelle>, and <imbroglio>.

#82 – Review of Section 7

Lesson Phonogram Review Lesson
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Instead of watching this video lesson, use the LEX Grapheme Cards to review the following graphemes and their corresponding phonemes: <b>, <d>, <f>, <h>, <j>, <k>, <l>, <m>, <n>, <p>, <qu>, <r>, <t>, <v>, <w>, <z>, <ck>, <ch>, <sh>, <th>, <wh>, <ai>, <ay>, <ee>, <igh>, <oa>, <au>, <aw>, <oi>, <oy>, <ui>, <er>, <ir>, <ur>, <ar>, <or>, <a>, <e>, replaceable <e>, <i>, <o>, <u>, <y>, <ye>, <yr>, <c>, <g>, <s>, <x>, <tch>, <ph>, <rh>, <gh>, <gn>, <kn>, <wr>, <dg>, <mb>, <pf>, <ugh>, <ps>, <rrh>, <sch>, <cch>, and <gl>.

#82 – Intro to Section 8

Lesson More Multi-Sound Phonograms
Recommended Reading Any book of the student’s choice
Topics to Investigate Use the LEX Grapheme Deck to learn 1 allophone for <gu>, 3 allophones for <oe>, 4 allophones for <ou>, 2 allophones for <ow>, 3 allophones for <oo>, 2 allophones for <ew>, 3 allophones for <eu>, 3 allophones for <ea>, 3 allophones for <eau>, 4 allophones for <ei>, 2 allophones for <ey>, and 1 allophone for <ie>.

Also study the following graphemes, which were not mentioned in the video. Learn 2 allophones for <ue>, 3 allophones for <ae>, 2 allophones for <dh>, 2 allophones for <kh>, 2 allophones for <sc>, and 2 allophones for <ts>.

Note that *<si>, *<ed>, *<es>, *<eur>, *<augh>, and *<ough> are not graphemes.

#83 – *<si> is not a Grapheme

Lesson Phonogram SI
Recommended Reading The Nutcrackers and the Sugar-Tongs” and other selections from “Child-Library Readers Book 4
Topics to Investigate There is no *<si> grapheme.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <expression>, <profession>, <tension>, <discussion>, <confession>, <division>, <explosion>, <television>, <ambrosia>, <decision>, <delusion>, and <confusion>. Since graphemes can only represent phonemes inside of morphemes, what conclusion can be made about the phonemes that correspond to the grapheme <s>?

#84 – *<ed> is not a Grapheme

Lesson Phonogram ED
Recommended Reading Alphabet” by Mother Goose and other selections from “Verse and Prose for Beginners in Reading
Topics to Investigate There is no *<ed> grapheme. However, there is an <-ed> suffix. Study the <-ed> suffix by adding it to the following words while studying them with SWI: <land>, <nod>, <complete>, <name>, <pull>, <return>, <pick>, <bake>, <chop>, <join>, <long>, <mourn>, <nod>, <open>, <peep>, <quarter>, <view>, and <want>.

Use the book “Teaching How the Written Word Works” to study the consonant doubling and final e suffixing conventions.

Watch “Spelling Rules: Focus on the Doubling Rule,” “Announcing Word Sums Doubling the Final Consonant,” “The Bound Base fer and the Doubling Convention,” “The Affix Squad: Doubling,” “Affix Squad Replacing final ‘e’,” and “Fifth Graders teach Second Graders about the ‘-ed’ suffix” from the classroom of Mary Beth Steven.

#85 – *<es> is not a Grapheme

Lesson Phonogram ES
Recommended Reading Little Birdies” and other selections from “The Beautiful Book for Little Children
Topics to Investigate There is no *<es> grapheme. However, there is an <-es> suffix. Study the <-es> suffix by adding it to the following words while studying them with SWI: <dish>, <watch>, <dress>, <catch>, <fix>, <teach>, <lash>, <cherry>, <cry>, and <try>.

Use the book “Teaching How the Written Word Works” to study the y to i suffixing convention.

Watch “The Affix Squad Toggling ‘y’ to ‘i’” from the classroom of Mary Beth Steven.

Use SWI to study <birdies>. Why isn’t there an <-es> suffix in <birdies>?

Use SWI to study one or more of the following morpheme alternants: <leaf> and <leave>, <wolf> and <wolve>, <wife> and <wive>, <knife> and <knive>, <elf> and <elve>, <half> and <halve>, <calf> and <calve>, <self> and <selve>, <loaf> and <loave>, <shelf> and <shelve>, <scarf> and <scarve>, <wharf> and <wharve>, as well as <thief> and <thieve>.

Use SWI to study the following words, which share the Latin root studium meaning “eagerness, zeal”: <student>, <study>, <studies>, <studio>, and <studious>. Do these words share a base? Can they all be placed in the same word matrix?

Watch “Teaching Word Sums to 2nd Graders” and “Teaching Word Sums to 2nd Graders Part 2” from the classroom of Mary Beth Steven.

#86 – Grapheme <gu>

Lesson Phonogram GU
Recommended Reading Good-Children Street” and other selections from “Lullaby Land” by Eugene Field
Topics to Investigate Investigate the hypothesis that <gu> is only a grapheme when it represents [g]. Study the words <guide>, <guitar>, <guilt>, <guard>, <fatigue>, <jaguar>, <iguana>, <penguin>, <language>, <vague>, and <tongues>. Which of these words have a <gu> grapheme and which have a <g> grapheme next to a <u> grapheme?

#87 – Grapheme <oe>

Lesson Phonogram OE
Recommended Reading The Tiptoes” and other selections from “Rhymes of a Child’s World” by Miriam Clark Potter
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the oe phonogram makes two long vowel sounds, ō and ōō.” A better understanding is “in American English, the <oe> grapheme can represent [oʊ] as in toe or [uː] as in shoe.”

Notice that there is no <oe> grapheme in <goes> or <does> because graphemes can’t cross morpheme boundaries. The word sums for these words are:

go + es -> goes

do + es -> does

Study the word <does> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck.

In British English, what other allophone can the <oe> grapheme represent? Study the British spelling of <amoeba> to find out.

#88 – Grapheme <ou>

Lesson Phonogram OU
Recommended Reading The Wind” by Robert Louis Stevenson and other selections from “Happy Hour Stories” by M. Genevieve Silvester and Edith Marshall Peter
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the ou phonogram makes four sounds, ow, ō, ōō, and ŭ.” A better understanding is “the <ou> grapheme can represent [aʊ] as in round, [oʊ] as in soul, [uː] as in you, [ʌ] as in touch, and [ʊ] as in could.

Study the words <could>, <you>, <young>, <four>, and <our> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

Study the <-ous> suffix.

Study the homophones <four>, <for>, and <fore>.

#89 – Grapheme <ow>

Lesson Phonogram OW
Recommended Reading One Afternoon” and other selections from “Five Minute Stories” by Laura E. Richards
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the ow phonogram makes two sounds, ow and ō.” A better understanding is “the <ow> grapheme can represent [oʊ] as in how and [aʊ] as in slow.”

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words from this lesson: <how>, <now>, <owl>, <crowd>, <brown>, <know>, <slow>, <row>, <own>, <follow>, <elbow>.

Study the word <down> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

#90 – Grapheme <oo>

Lesson Phonogram OO
Recommended Reading The Heart of Oak Books – First Book” edited by Charles Eliot Norton
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the oo phonogram makes two sounds, the long double o sound, ōō as in moon, and the short double o sound, ŏŏ as in book.” A better understanding is “the <oo> grapheme can represent [uː] as in moon, [ʊ] as in book, and [ʌ] as in blood.”

Revisit what it means for a vowel to rhotacize. What happens to the sound represented by <oo> in the following words: <door>, <floor>, <poor>?

Study the word <school> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Study the words <blood> and <too> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

Study the homophones <to>, <too>, and <two>.

#91 – Grapheme <ew>

Lesson Phonogram EW
Recommended Reading The Dove and the Ant” and other selections from “The Folk-Lore Readers Book Two
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the ew phonogram makes two sounds, the long double o sound, ōō as in flew, and the long u sound, ū as in few.” A better understanding is “the <oo> grapheme can represent [uː] as in flew, [ju] as in few, and [oʊ] as in sew.

Use SWI to investigate <sew> and its homophones <so> and <sow>.

#92 – Grapheme <eu>

Lesson Phonogram EU and EUR
Recommended Reading The Little Mother Goose” by Jessie Wilcox Smith, “The Little Wreath of Stories and Poems for Children” by Caroline Gilman
Topics to Investigate There is no *<eur> grapheme.

The lesson says, “the eu phonogram makes two sounds, the long double o sound ōō as in neutral, and the long u sound, ū as in feud.” A better understanding is “the <eu> grapheme can represent [uː] as in neutral, [ju] as in feud, and [ɔɪ] as in Freud.”

Revisit what it means for a vowel to rhotacize. What happens to the sound represented by <eu> in the following words: <euro>, <Europe>, <eureka>, <neuron>, and <heuristic>?

#93 – Grapheme <ea>

Lesson Phonogram EA
Recommended Reading As the Goose Flies” by Katharine Pyle
Topics to Investigate The lesson says “the ea phonogram makes three sounds, the long e sound, ē as in eat, the short e sound, ĕ as in bread, and the long a sound, ā as in steak.” A better understanding is “the <ea> grapheme can represent [iː] as in eat, [ɛ] as in bread, and [eɪ] as in steak.”

Revisit what it means for a vowel to rhotacize. What happens to the sound represented by <ea> in the following words: <hear>, <ear>, <bear>, <early>, and <learn>?

Use SWI to investigate one or more of the words in the passage of text from the video. Study <steady>, <heavy>, and/or <beat>.

Study the word <each> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

Study the words <head> and <heart> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

Study the homophones <heart> and <hart>.

#94 – Grapheme <eau>

Lesson Phonogram EAU
Recommended Reading “The Boy in Trouble About His Old Hat” and other selections from “The Little Wreath of Stories and Poems for Children” by Caroline Gilman
Topics to Investigate The lesson says “the eau phonogram makes two sounds, the long u sound, ū as in beauty, and the long o sound, ō as in bureau. A better understanding is “the <eau> grapheme can represent [ju] as in beauty, [oʊ] as in bureau, and [ɑ] as in bureaucracy.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <beauty>, <beauteous>, <beautify>, <beautician>, <bureau>, <flambeau>, <plateau>, <beau>, <chateau>.

Study the homophones <beau> and <bow>.

Study the word <beautiful> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

#95 – Grapheme <ei>

Lesson Phonogram EI
Recommended Reading Poems My Children Love Best of All” edited by Clifton Johnson
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the ei phonogram makes three long vowel sounds, the long a sound, ā as in veil, the long e sound, ē as in seize, and the long i sound, ī as in feisty.” A better understanding is “the <ei> grapheme can represent [eɪ] as in veil, [iː] as in seize, [aɪ] as in feisty, and [ɛ] as in heifer.”

Revisit what it means for a vowel to rhotacize. What happens to the sound represented by <ei> in the following words: <heir>, <their>, and <weird>?

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <foreign>, <forfeit>, and <sovereign>.

Study the word <either> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

#96 – Grapheme <ey>

Lesson Phonogram EY
Recommended Reading Over in the Meadow” by Olive A. Wadsworth from “In the Nursery of My Bookhouse” edited by Olive Beaupré Miller
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the ey phonogram makes two long vowel sounds, the long a sound, ā as in they and the long e sound, ē as in turkey.” A better understanding is “the <ey> grapheme can represent [eɪ] as in they, [iː] as in turkey, and [aɪ] as in geyser.”

There is no <ey> grapheme in the word <eye>. Revisit the word <eye> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

Study the <-ey> suffix.

Study the word <they> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck.

#97 – Grapheme <ie>

Lesson Phonogram IE
Recommended Reading Rhymes and Verses – Collected Poems for Young People” by Walter De La Mare
Topics to Investigate The lesson says, “the ie phonogram makes two long vowel sounds, the long i sound, ī, at the end of three-letter base words such as pie, and the long e sound, ē, in most other words such as movie.” A better understanding is, “the <ie> grapheme can represent [iː] as in movie or [i] as in sieve.”

Use SWI to study the following words: <pie>, <lie>, <tie>, <die>, and <vie>. Do these words have the <ie> grapheme, or do they have an <i> grapheme followed by a single, final, non-syllabic <e>?

Study the word <friend> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck. Why isn’t there an <ie> grapheme in <friend>?

Study the <-ie> suffix.

Revisit the y to i suffixing convention by working with the following word sums:

baby + es -> babies

city + es -> cities

dry + ed -> dried

fly + es -> flies

cry + es -> cries

#98 – *<augh> is not a grapheme

Lesson Phonogram AUGH
Recommended Reading In the Days of Giants” by Abbie Farwell Brown
Topics to Investigate There is no *<augh> grapheme. There is a <ugh> grapheme that can represent [f].

Analyze the words <taught>, <caught>, <fraught>, <aught>, and <naught> with <ugh> as an etymological marker that does not represent a pronunciation. Now, what are the GPCs in these words? Use the LEX Grapheme Deck and Etymonline to identify word cousins to these words that can be used to support this analysis.

Study the homophones <draught> and <draft>.

Revisit the word <laugh> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

Revisit the word <daughter> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 1” deck. Notice again that <ugh> can be a grapheme or an etymological marker.

#99 – *<ough> is not a grapheme

Lesson Phonogram OUGH
Recommended Reading I Take it You Already Know” by T.S. Watt
Topics to Investigate There is no *<ough> grapheme. There is a <ugh> grapheme that can represent [f].

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <enough>, <rough>, <tough>, <cough>, and <trough>.

Revisit the exercise from the <ugh> lesson where you analyze the words <ought>, <bought>, <brought>, <fought>, <sought>, <thought>, <although>, <though>, <dough>, <borough>, <thorough>, <thoroughly>, and <slough> with <ugh> as an etymological marker that does not represent a pronunciation. Now, what are the GPCs in these words? Use the LEX Grapheme Deck and Etymonline to identify word cousins to these words that can be used to support this analysis.

Revisit the word <through> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 2” deck. Notice again that <ugh> can be a grapheme or an etymological marker.

Revisit the words <drought> and <enough> using the cards for these words from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

#100 – Final <ue>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <ue>.
Recommended Reading Quite True” and other selections from “Anderson’s Tales for Children” translated by Alfred Wehnert
Topics to Investigate Study the <ue> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 2 allophones for <ue>.

Study the word <true> using the card for this word from the “LEX InSight Words, Volume 3” deck.

#101 – Grapheme <ae>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <ae>.
Recommended Reading Stories from the Faerie Queen Told to the Children” by Jeanie Lang
Topics to Investigate Study the <ae> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 3 allophones for <ae>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <Aesop>, <aeon>, <aegis>, <algae>, <sundae>, <aeneus>, <faery> and <faerie>.

#102 – Grapheme <dh>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <dh>.
Recommended Reading Exiles from Fairyland” and other selections from “Wonder Tales of Scottish Myth and Legend” by Donald A. MacKenzie
Topics to Investigate Study the <dh> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 2 allophones for <dh>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <dhal>, <dhole>, <lamedh>, <edh>, <yodh>, <dhoti>, <dhurrie>, <Gillie Dhu>, <bodhran>, and <ceilidh>.

Study the homophones <sidh> and <she>.

#103 – Grapheme <kh>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <kh>.
Recommended Reading The Markhor” and other selections from “The Wild Beasts of the World” by Frank Finn
Topics to Investigate Study the <kh> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 2 allophones for <kh>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <ankh>, <khan>, <samekh>, <kolkhoz>, <markhor>, and <khaddar>. 

Study the homophones <lakh>, <loch>, and <lock>.

#104 – Grapheme <sc>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <sc>.
Recommended Reading Unit 2: The Scientific Method” from “Introductory Science” by Eugene J. Meehan
Topics to Investigate Study the <sc> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 2 allophones for <sc>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <science>, <scissor>, <scion>, <scincoid>, <scimitar>, <scent>, <scepter>, and <prosciutto>.

Study the word <mischance>. Why isn’t the <sc> in <mischance> a grapheme?

Study the homophones <rescind> and <resend>.

#105 – Grapheme <ts>

Lesson There is no Story Hour Academy lesson for <ts>.
Recommended Reading Ocean in Motion: Wind, Waves, Current and Tides” from “Coastal Awareness : a Resource Guide for Teachers in Elementary Science” by Frederick A. Rasmussen; “7.2 Nature of Earthquakes” from “CK-12 Earth Science For Middle School
Topics to Investigate Study the <ts> card in the LEX Grapheme Deck. Learn 2 allophones for <ts>.

Use SWI to study one or more of the following words: <tsuba>, <tsuris>, and <tsunami>.

Study the words <pantsuit>. Why isn’t the <ts> in <pantsuit> a grapheme?

#106 – Final Review and Congratulations

Lesson There is not yet a final lesson for Story Hour Academy.
Recommended Reading Continue reading and being read to daily.
Topics to Investigate Continue using SWI to study interesting or challenging words.

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